Sunday, March 15, 2020
buy custom Banning Smoking in Public Places essay The issue as to whether a smoking ban should or should not be put in place is very controversial. People who have never smoked have often expressed their desire to have a smoking ban put in place. However, smokers feel that this would be a personal infringement on their personal freedom. Given that smoking is addictive and it is a habit that one does not explicitly decide whether or not to dispense of, it is understandable from the smokers side of view why they have avidly put up a spirited defense for smoking especially in public places (David 2). Smoking bans were first put in place in 1590 by Pope Urban VII whereby people were excommunicated if found smoking close to a church. However, this debate gained momentum in the 20th century after various researchers found the effects of smoking to be detrimental not only to the smoker but also to those around them. California was the first state to issue a ban on smoking in restaurants in 1990. Since then, over thirty four American states have put in place similar anti-smoking laws (Dusenberry 2-6). In the past, the onset of smoking signified adulthood with this image being propagated by adverts of famed stars. However, this trend has been declining in the recent past due to health concerns and various bans in cities. There are various pros in favor of the ban on smoking in public places (Hazards Magazine 12). First, health concerns have been constantly raised as to the dangers posed by smoking. The Surgeon General has persistently warned of these dangers as indicated on each pack of cigarettes as to the personal health concerns posed by smoking to the consumer. In fact, recent studies have proved that those close to smokers face similar or even graver health risks. Therefore, for this purpose, the health risks faced by smokers are similar to those faced by those in their neighborhood such as family members or friends. Cigarette smoking is not only detrimental to ones health but also harmful to ones physique and teeth. Secondly, studies have shown that smoking is detrimental not only to the smoker but also to those around them thereby putting them at a risk commonly referred to as passive smoking. This is especially the case for unwilling smokers especially in public places like bars, restaurants and around children. The inhalation of second-hand smoke through involuntary smoking has been found to be as injurious to the persons health as to the actual smoker. Medical experts have found that there are various effects of passive smoking in adults and children. Pickworth states thatthe results indicate that, contrary to the belief of many consumers, bidi and additive-free cigarettes deliver substantial amounts of nicotine and other toxic components of tobacco smoke to the passive smoker (p.22)Minor side-effects to passive adult smokers are: sore throat, cough, headache, eye irritations, nausea and infections in the nose and ears. Long-term effects of passive smoking are lung cancer, pneumonia, hyperte nsion, asthma, tuberculosis and bronchitis. Other diseases may not be chiefly caused by passive smoking, but it in effect increases risks are: heart diseases, dementia, brain tumors, renal cell carcinoma and diseases associated with the circulatory system. In children, passive smoking results in even more risky effects since children have a weaker immune system. Cases of bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, allergies and ear, throat and lung infections have been documented. In fetus, passive smoking has been found to cause: Risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, premature births, low birth weights and failure in the production of sufficient baby milk by the affected mothers. Finally, cigarettesmoke harms the reproductive system in males and females as well as the unborn baby. In men, cases of low sperm count, increased proportions of deformed sperms, unwarranted adjustments in the sex hormones such as testosterone, reduced sperm mobility, and cases of impotence have been reported. In femal es, smoking leads to higher exposure to a number of risks, such as miscarriage and premature birth, irregular menstrual cycles, early menopause, stroke in those over 35 years old, and increased incidences of cancer of the cervix. The unborn baby is put at various risks, such as low child birth weight, which may lead to prolonged difficulties during subsequent growth and development, and a high probability of occurrence of cleft clip and respiratory illnesses (Yap 1). In view of these facts, public smoking is not only detrimental to the smokers themselves but also to non-smokers, a ban on smoking should be hastily put in place to counter all these effects. Thirdly, the cost of smoking to the individual and to the expenses incurred by the state due to health problems and loss in productivity has been of concern. In 2008, a pack of cigarettes had a retail price that was ranging from $4 to in excess of $7. Additionally, the Center for Disease Control carried out a study that estimates that each pack of cigarettes smoked leads to an expenditure in each state of as much as $16 on average due to expenditure on health and loss in productivity. Therefore, a ban on smoking would serve to eliminate these costs. A ban would also ensure that these costs are recovered by instituting a levy on cigarettes so as to discourage smoking. This was the case in Texas, whereby it made $1.4 million from cigarette tax revenue (Byrne 8). Fourthly, smoke is not only an air pollutant, and should therefore be eliminated, but it also has an unpleasant smell, discolors clothing, decorations in homes and furniture. If a smoking ban is successfully put in place, it would eliminate these undesirables while saving on costs associated with filtering and cleaning. Finally, smoking in public encourages children to take up the habit in line with the view that children model the behavior of adults. A ban on smoking shall ensure that lesser children take up smoking since it shall be viewed as wrongful rather than a mature lifestyle. Most smokers start smoking in order to fit in. A soon-to-be smokers environment may be heavily influenced by parents or friends who are regular smokers. For instance, it is a well-known fact that most people start smoking during their teenage years. Peer pressure is responsible for recruiting new smokers, who then become life-long cigarette consumers. In addition, teenagers and the youth tend to idolize and emulate the actions of celebrities and other well-known societal figures. Hence, when celebrities appear in adverts or movies while smoking, the young generation picks up this habit believing that it is fashionable. Once one becomes a regular smoker, it becomes almost impossible to quit. However, opponents to this law have come up with various arguments against the ban on smoking. Key among them is that a ban on smoking implies an infringement on peoples personal right to freedom. This right, as instituted in the United States Bill of Rights, is contravened by any attempts to limit this personal freedom therefore such a ban should not be put in place owing to the superiority of the constitution. Secondly, this is a hypocritical approach since other chemicals such as alcohol, preservatives and junk foods have been found to have more detrimental and immediate effects on the consumer. For instance, the recent wave of obesity and coronary and heart problemms have been associated with junk foods which various research analyses have shown to be causing more deaths than cigarette smoke. This is widely felt by such opponents to the smoking ban such as Ray who feels that Smoking/Air Pollution: is there much difference? Breathing polluted air is similar to smoking 20 cigarettes a day. Further, pollution in the environment and in the air is being caused more by large industries. A mere smokes air pollution is negligible when compared to the large amount of toxic wastes released by various unethical global giants (p.6). Thirdly, opponents to the institution of this ban feel that cigarette smoking has been given more attention than due while negating major causes of health problems and mortality. Therefore, this spotlight on tobacco and its classification as a taboo may lead to more smokers since humans love trying what is classified as a taboo in society. This may also lead to youngster taking up smoking behind closed doors as has been the case with substance abuse. Further, smoking withdrawal symptoms by smokers may lead to a decline in their productivity. For instance, some people may start smoking when experiencing a transition phase. Individuals have been known to start smoking when undergoing stressful situations or significant changes in their lives. For instance, a recently divorced man may turn to alcohol and cigarettes in order to avoid thinking about his predicament. Furthermore, stressed and overburdened employees may choose to take breaks at specific intervals during which they share cig arettes as they converse about their situation. Therefore, a non-smoker is soon initiated in the group as this symbolizes a common bond of friendship. In addition, some smoke in order to calm their nerves. Although nicotines soothing effects do not last long, a smoker derives a sense of confidence and calmness when facing situations that make one anxious or exited (Ditcher 1). Finally, a ban on public smoking will have an adverse effect on the commercial front. Businesses such as the British American Tobacco shall experience lower sales which may lead to loss of jobs and revenue as they downsize in order to fit into the shrinking market. Also, a significant source of funding to the treasury is the taxes levied on cigarettes which shall be lost with reduced consumption. Further, smoking is more of a lifestyle and people normally visit some social sites such as bars to smoke. Banning smoking in such zones leads to a loss in business for such joints leading to their eventual closure. In conclusion, all the above cons do not serve as a basis on which a sound argument against the implementation of the ban on smoking can be nullified. Despite the fact that cigarette smoking is harmful to ones health, a fact that smokers know too well, most people experience difficulties in their attempt to quit smoking. Whereas one is free to choose whether to smoke or not, the decision to quit is not always straightforward. Quitting requires willpower and personal commitment in order to overcome this harmful habit. Although most smokers feel good during and after smoking, there are no documented health advantages. Smoking harms the consumer as well as those close to him or her. Although smoking is a personal decision, its side effects are felt by the user, ones immediate family, and the community at large. Therefore, it is imperative to raise awareness amongst active smokers and non-smokers. This will not only help smokers quit cigarettes but shall also deter non-smokers from joini ng their counterparts. In view of the multiple health problems associated with smoking and the expenses incurred, a ban should be put in place so as to reverse this trend. Buy custom Banning Smoking in Public Places essay
Friday, February 28, 2020
Morality and Rights - Essay Example "That the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. His own good, either physical or moral, is not a sufficient warrant," Dworkin (1994, p.9). Over centuries, morality had been mercurial, while Law was not, though there is a constant need to adapt to changing social requirements. Killing troublemakers and animals was moral at one point and not so now. Today, recreational drugs, homosexuality, prostitution etc. are legally accepted. "To grasp fully where law and morality meet, one must also grasp where they remain divergent. ..Of greatest interest in that theoretical endeavour, of course, is the matter of pinning down whether and how moral principles can enter into those processes. Only by adequately addressing themselves to that matter can positivists come up with satisfactorily precise analyses of the workings of legal systems," Kramer (2004, p.11). Morality is interpreted by religions in contradictorily and what is right for one need not be so for another. In multicultural societies this could be difficult to be enforced. It is highly contentious for law to depend on moral values alone, because the question arises, which moral values.
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Altered Mental Status - Assignment Example Two primary components constitute the condition of altered mental status such as: consciousness level of the patient or arousal and the Ã¢â¬Å"content of consciousnessÃ¢â¬ (Wilber, 2006, p.300). Impairment of cognition is one of the most common diagnoses for AMS, especially in the elderly population, and Ã¢â¬Å"10% to 20%Ã¢â¬ of community dwellers as well as Ã¢â¬Å"48%Ã¢â¬ of residents in nursing homes are found to be ailing from this condition (p.301). AMS manifests in different forms in patients across various age groups, and this paper will focus on three major diagnoses of the disease as under: Delirium, a delicate condition found in the elderly people, is characterized by acute and Ã¢â¬Å"fluctuating changeÃ¢â¬ in the process of cognition, which entails impairment to consciousness and attention (p.301). One of the most significant risk factors associated with delirium include both disability as well as mortality, and evidence suggests that Ã¢â¬Å"22% 76%Ã¢â¬ of the patients during hospitalization confronts these risks (p.302). Delirium in patients can be assessed by observing the disturbances in the level of consciousness, changes occurring in the degree of cognition as well as from evaluating whether these changes are occurring within a Ã¢â¬Å"short period of timeÃ¢â¬ (p.302). Disturbances in the level of consciousness in the patient may manifest in terms of him or her becoming lethargic but will not wind up in spells of stupor. On the other hand, changes in the level of cognition demonstrate in terms of deficits in Ã¢â¬Å"short-term memoryÃ¢â¬ and some patie nts may also develop disorientation. The disturbances in consciousness and changes in cognition will occur rapidly and, therefore, are easy to recognize. Tools such as Ã¢â¬Å"Confusion Assessment Method (CAM)Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Differential DiagnosisÃ¢â¬ can be effective in the diagnosis of the condition of delirium in patients with AMS
Friday, January 31, 2020
Define the concepts of altruism Essay Altruism is defined as a selfless concern or act for the welfare and good of others.Ã An altruistic person is not motivated to do good because of reward or duty.Ã A purely altruistic person gives without thought to benefits, reward or recognition. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Autonomy in the general sense is an individuals capacity to make rational decisions without coercion from any quarter.Ã In the moral sense, autonomy is the basis of a persons moral responsibility for his actions. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Human dignity refers to a persons state of integrity, righteousness and virtue. Ã In another perspective, human dignity means the intrinsic right of people to be accorded unconditional respect without regard for his gender, race, status, and political inclinations. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Integrity is a concept that refers to a persons consistency in doing things and in his principles. People with integrity behave in accordance with their beliefs and value system. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Social justice is an application, rather than administration, of justice in every part of society.Ã When there is social justice, every member of society is fairly and equitably treated and receives his fair share of societal benefits. Describe how each value impacts the practice of a professional nurse. A professional nurse should have an intrinsic need to help without thought for reward.Ã By applying altruism to the practice, the nurse becomes a better care giver who truly cares for the well-being of the patient. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Autonomy impacts the professional nurse in the sense that he is responsible for the life of his patients.Ã He has to be alert and careful in performing his tasks because it is his moral obligation to make sure the patients life is not endangered because of errors.Ã The nurse must be competent in assessing and performing patient care using knowledge and professional expertise. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Human dignity affects a professional nurse since he has to respect his patients no matter who he is.Ã In other words, the nurse cannot discriminate against any patient. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the nursing profession, a nurse with integrity acts and performs his duties in accordance to standards and ethics and he does not falter in his duties. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Social justice requires the professional nurse to do his service to every member of society.Ã In the same manner, the nurse is required to treat all of his patients fairly and equitably as members of community. Discuss how student demonstrates values listed above. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A student must study nursing not because of the perceived financial rewards or job security in the future.Ã He must study nursing because it his greatest desire to do good. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Autonomy is shown by a student when he shows responsibility for his studies.Ã He does not let his peers pressure him into doing activities that are not considered moral and legal. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Human dignity is demonstrated by a student when he shows respect for all of his classmates, teachers, and other people he comes in contact with.Ã He does not entertain thoughts of being socially better or inferior to anyone. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A student of integrity does his coursework consistently and responsibly.Ã He does not cut classes and does not perform half-heartedly in class. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Social justice is applicable to a student by not hindering other students to have the privilege of education.Ã This could mean, refraining from bullying acts and other acts of aggression towards other students. References Morgan, S.H. (2007, September 27).Ã The Forces of Magnetism: Core Characteristics to Achieve Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Magnet Recognition.Ã Medscape Online.Ã Retrieved September 26, 2008, from Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/562944?src=rss Nermin, E., Altun, I. (1998).Ã Professional and Personal Values of Nursing in Turkey.Ã Eubios Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Journal of Asian and International Bioethics, 8, 72-75. National University.Ã (2008).Ã Professional Nursing Values.Ã Retrieved September 26, 2008, from Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.nu.edu/LIBRARY/Reserve/nsg310.html
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Racism is Unacceptable From the beginning of recorded history, possibly before then, humans have found a necessity for classifying and categorizing every aspect of life. This need for order has been used to efficiently organize and clarify the endless details on Earth. This arrangement of objects in groups has also created a very sinister and volatile mindset that some people live by. This associative manner of classification has lead to the formation of beliefs in race identities, stereotypes, and superiority in the form of racism. Racism is contempt for people who have physical characteristics different from your own (Nanda and Warms 1). This concept is often combined with what is called racialism. Racialism is an ideology based on the following suppositions: There are biologically fixed races; different races have different moral, intellectual, and physical characteristics (Nanda and Warms 1). This is the ideal that many people engage in consciously and the way some people think without even realizing i t. The only way to overcome this derogatory belief system is to define the meanings and misunderstandings of racial differences. Race is the term for classifications of people based on opinions about physical characteristics and differences between groups of individuals. The problem with this is that these differences do not really provide distinctions between ancestral lineages. In fact, these subtle differences between so called races, like broadened noses, physical structure, and skin color, are the results of environmental circumstances encountered by early nomadic human groups as they moved and settled in new territories. These traits are the products of many thousands of years of genetic hit or miss. Some of these... ... not curious about the skin colors, hair textures, bodily structures, and facial features associated with racial background (Rensberger 57). As a result of this, we can only hope that by not tolerating this type of thinking in our children and not being part of it with our associates we can help make racism an unpopular and unacceptable way of life. Works Cited 1. Keita, S. O. Y. and Kittles, Rick A. Ã¢â¬Å"The Persistence of Racial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence.Ã¢â¬ American Anthropologist. 99 (September 1997): 534- 542. 2. Nanda, Serena and Warms, Richard L. Cultural Anthropology. Belmont, CA: West/ Wadsworth, 1998. 3. Rensberger, Boyce. Ã¢â¬Å"Racial Odyssey.Ã¢â¬ Science Digest. (January/ February 1981) Reprint. 57- 63. 4. Wachtel, Paul L. Race in the Mind of America: Breaking the Vicious Circle between Blacks and Whites. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
A drug is a substance which has a discernible physiological effect when taken into the body. These chemicals change the functions of the central nervous system (CNS), providing temporary relief from mental, physical and social problems. Usage of a drug over a period of time often results in dependence and tolerance of the drug. The user experiences physical and psychological withdrawal symptoms when attempts are made to quit the drug. Tolerance refers to the increased ability of the body to tolerate the drug without ill effects. Due to drugs having the capacity to enhance performance, they are often used recreationally and abused. This leads to addiction which can potentially destroy lives. Drugs which alter behavior could be categorized as stimulants, hallucinogens and depressants. Stimulants are a class of drug which can alter the way in which someone behaves by stimulating the central nervous systems. In other words, they increase the activity of the brain resulting in increased alertness physical activity, productivity, endurance and motivation. Stimulants include amphetamines, called Ã¢â¬ËuppersÃ¢â¬â¢, cocaine and nicotine. Users usually find relaxation and rest impossible and tend to have no appetite. Moreover, side effects may include muscle spasms, chest pain, nausea, and blurred vision due to an overworked heart and the subsequent high blood pressure. During World War II, stimulants were extensively used by soldiers to maintain alertness. By then, various forms of the drug were readily available such as methamphetamine. Today however, due to its side effects and addictive properties, possession and usage have been made illegal and doctor prescriptions have been significantly reduced. Hallucinogens are a class of drugs which cause an alteration in perception, thought, or mood. Examples of hallucinogens drugs include marijuana, magic mushrooms and cannabis. These drugs distort sensory perception by interfering with the activity of acetylcholine, norepinaphrine, or serotonin. Hallucinogenic drugs are among the oldest known group of drugs used for their ability to alter human perception and mood. Effects of hallucinogens include perceptual distortion, increased heart rate, nausea, weaknesses and hearing, touching and seeing things that donÃ¢â¬â¢t exist. The effects of hallucinogens take place within half an hour and last for several hours. Depressants are a group of drugs which temporarily diminish the function or activity of a specific part of the body or mind. Depressants are described as psychoactive drugs that slow down oneÃ¢â¬â¢s Central Nervous System (CNS), thus they are referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"downersÃ¢â¬ . These types of drugs are used as prescribed medication as well as illicit substances and can be dangerous. Depressants include alcohol, barbiturates and tranquillizers. Barbiturates and benzodiazepines are the two major categories of depressants used as medicine. Benzodiazepines that are commonly used such as Diazepam (Valium) and Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) were developed as a safe alternative to barbiturates to treat insomnia and anxiety but are now a major category of abused drugs. The prolonged use of these drugs can result in tolerance. In addition, the sudden withdrawal from these drugs by habitual users may result in physical withdrawal symptoms such as insomnia, nausea, headaches, weakness and blood pressure drops. This may consequently lead to a coma and or death. Drugs which alter behavior could be categorized as stimulants, hallucinogens and depressants. The use of each type of drug results in an alteration of the Central Nervous System. Stimulants tend to affect the Central Nervous System by stimulating ones brain hence altering ones behavior. Hallucinogens are known to distort oneÃ¢â¬â¢s senses by causing changes in perception, thought, and emotion. On the other hand, depressants have the opposite effect of stimulants. Depressants tend to temporarily slow down the function or activity of a particular part of the mind or body. Although some types of these drugs are acquired legally, they are often abused.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Philosophy allows people to study the nature of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs. Throughout history peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs have differed. At one time people may believe one idea and decades later people may completely disagree with that idea. Not even the ideas of the law are exempt from this occurrence. Since the spoken word, hundreds of philosophers have defined law in different ways. Seeing law in different ways people can come to different conclusions about specific cases. The Fugitive Slave Law was a controversial law in American history. The Fugitive Slave Law allowed slave-owners to capture their slaves who have fled North to free states. In United States v Morris, the emancipators challenged the Fugitive Slave Law in Boston. A group of emancipatorsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas describes the Natural Law theory as a theory coming from the eternal law which is GodÃ¢â¬â¢s law imprinted on us. People determine moral issues from what is right and wro ng. Aquinas did think the answers for the moral issues were clear; however, he still asserted that sometimes it is hard for people to decipher what was right and wrong. Aquinas thinks laws come from the conclusions made from basic human knowledge - knowing right and wrong. The law of nature derives from morality Aquinas would say that morality and justice are serve from the moral law and justice, and is what morality requires of us (Aquinas). Morality requires us to act righteously. If a law is not moral, thus it is not a law I don t see that you have explained why Aquinas thinks that. The Fugitive Slave Law goes against the laws of nature. Humans have their own free will and the law of nature does not permit one human to claim another human. People are not property and have their own free will. Obviously, morality says people are not possessions. One cannot approach a person and say, Ã¢â¬Å"I own you.Ã¢â¬ It is not morally justifiable. According to Aquinas, the Fugitive Slave L aw is not a real law because it does not follow morality. At the time of the Fugitive Slave Law, people knew slavery was wrong; so, the jurors in Morris did conduct in the appropriate manner. As stated before, natural law theory states a law requires morality. The jurors